Incandescent light provides smooth, moist yellowish light, which is typically used for recessed cans or downlights. Halogen lights create a crisp white light that is ideal for job lighting; fluorescent lights with a long life and low energy consumption are now going from hot to cool in many different shades. For the entire kitchen, recessed lighting can provide general lighting, project lighting over the sink or table, and accent lighting over shelf or wall art. Undercabinet Fixtures: Such lamps come in the form of slim strings, mini-track structures and miniature recessed or surface-mounted balls, also called pucks. A standard thumb rule is that for every 4 to 6 square feet of ceiling space, you use one recessed light. Doing so also offers general illumination. If you rely exclusively on recessed ceiling lights to illuminate your kitchen, this is an important rule to keep in mind.
Kitchen lamps should be bright as you use knives and other cooking tools. Consider 100 watts for dark kitchens and more reflective fittings. Consider using a much dimmer 80 watt bulb if you get a lot of natural light. Soft white / warm white (2700 Kelvin): ideal for bedrooms and living rooms; giving them a dry, comfortable traditional feel. Bright white / cool white (4100 Kelvin): ideal in kitchens, toilets or garages; whiter, more vibrant feeling in rooms. 50 Footcandles is normal, but it may require 100 or more footcandles for people over 50 years old. A 5-watt Light Channel should be required by those over 50 to light their kitchen countertops; a 2.5 watt Light Channel should be adequate for those under 50. Generally speaking, light fixtures can be replaced by a homeowner. If the amperage is not high enough to cover the new light's wattage, the circuit breaker would require an additional wire ride. For such a job, it is better to employ a trained, qualified electrician.
Homeowners should expect to pay for new lighting systems throughout the interior from $760 to $1,105 everywhere. On the other side, installing a single light fixture will cost between $42 and $112 with professional assistance. The typical rule of thumb is 24 "from each wall, and then 3-5 inches in bottles. So you'd actually like two lines of lights in a 12' house. Given that it's a bedroom and you don't need it as bright as a kitchen, you would probably get away with 2 rows of 4 lights for a total of 8. Soft white (2,700 to 3,000 Kelvin) is hot and orange, the usual color spectrum that you get from incandescent bulbs.
One of the banes of a home owner's life can be condensation. Not only does it look unsightly but it can also cause much more serious problems such as damaged window frames and damp problems. Of course these problems become worse and worse with time. The best thing to do is to fix them as soon as possible. Below we will discuss some of the causes and solutions of condensation and how it can affect you and your home. The main difficulty in tracing condensation is distinguishing it from penetrating damp. Condensation is caused when moisture in the air meets a cold surface. Obviously, rooms where steam gathers - bathrooms and kitchens - are most prone to it, particularly the outside walls, which are more likely to be cold. There is an easy test for whether damp on a wall is caused by condensation. Dry a small patch with a cloth and fasten a little piece of glass to it, bedded on a ring of putty.
Leave the glass until it mists up, then see if the mist is on the inside - in which case it's penetrating damp - or on the outside - in which case it's condensation. The causes of condensation are complex and it's notoriously difficult to cure. Possible solutions to the problem centre either around cutting down the amount of moisture in the air, or making sure that there are no surfaces for it to condense - by warming them up. Cutting down the moisture in the air can be difficult in rooms like kitchens and bathrooms, where there are obvious and necessary sources of steam. Usually the best answer is to increase the ventilation - getting damp air quickly out of the room and replacing it with fresh, dry air. This means installing an extractor fan with a large air capacity, ducted to the outside. Warming the room up may simply be a matter of adding a heater or turning up the existing heating. But it's quite likely - particularly where only an outside wall is affected - that the problem is more one of insulation than of heat input. In this case, improving the insulation may well provide a solution. More radical methods involve dry lining the wall with plasterboard over a layer of insulating material. If you do this, you must provide a vapour check to cut down condensation inside the cavity behind the board. Special vapour check board is available. You can also get a variety of products which deal with condensation in another way; they tackle the symptoms rather than the cause - removing the damp rather than stopping it forming. For example, you can get absorbent strips for windows. Although these are not a permanent cure, they can be useful in localized trouble spots such as a small window. Remember people like my grandfather used to say measure twice cut once.